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解决计算机安全问题需要的不是技术而是……

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Computers will never be secure. To manage the risks, look to economics rather than technology

计算机从来都不安全。要应对这一风险,更需要经济手段而非技术手段。

COMPUTER security is a contradiction in terms. Consider the past year alone: cyberthieves stole $81m from the central bank of Bangladesh; the $4.8bn takeover of Yahoo, an internet firm, by Verizon, a telecoms firm, was nearly derailed by two enormous data breaches; and Russian hackers interfered in the American presidential election.

计算机安全是个自相矛盾的说法。姑且只看下去年的情况:网络窃贼从孟加拉中央银行盗走了8100万美元;电信公司威瑞森(Verizon)以48亿美元收购互联网公司雅虎的交易差点因两起大规模数据泄露而泡汤;俄罗斯黑客干扰了美国总统大选。

a contradiction in terms a statement containing two words that contradict each other’s meaning 自相矛盾的说法  A ‘nomad settlement’ is a contradiction in terms. “游牧者的定居”是用词上的自相矛盾。

launch/make/accept/defeat a takeover bid 发起/进行/接受/阻止收购投标

telecoms n.[plural]电信;电讯 telecoms company/technology/industry 电信公司/技术/业

derail [di’reil] v. To derail something such as a plan or a series of negotiations means to prevent it from continuing as planned.阻挠;使离开正常进程 The present wave of political killings is the work of people trying to derail peace talks. 当前的这一系列政治谋杀乃是那些想阻挠和平谈判的人所为。

breach [bri:tʃ] n.[C,U] 违反,破坏(条约、法律或承诺)a breach of contract/copyright/warranty 违约;侵犯版权;违反保证  data breach 数据泄露

Away from the headlines, a black market in computerised extortion, hacking-for-hire and stolen digital goods is booming. The problem is about to get worse. Computers increasingly deal not just with abstract data like credit-card details and databases, but also with the real world of physical objects and vulnerable human bodies. A modern car is a computer on wheels; an aeroplane is a computer with wings. The arrival of the “Internet of Things”will see computers baked into everything from road signs and MRI scanners to prosthetics and insulin pumps. There is little evidence that these gadgets will be any more trustworthy than their desktop counterparts. Hackers have already proved that they can take remote control of connected cars and pacemakers.

在这些头条之外,一个利用电脑敲诈勒索、黑客雇佣和数字商品销赃的黑市日渐繁荣。这一问题还将进一步恶化。计算机的应用途径日益增多,它们不仅处理信用卡详细信息和数据库之类的抽象数据,还涉及真实世界里的物品和脆弱的人体。现代的汽车就是装在轮子上的电脑,而飞机则是插上翅膀的电脑。物联网的到来会让所有物品都嵌上计算机,从道路标识、核磁共振扫描仪,到假肢和胰岛素泵。没有证据表明这些装置会比桌面电脑更安全可靠。黑客们已经证明了他们能远程控制联网的汽车和起搏器。

headline [‘hedlain] [C] (报纸的)大字标题 The scandal was in the headlines for several days. 这一丑闻连续几天都刊登在头版头条。

常见动词搭配grab / hit / make the headlines to be an important item of news in newspapers or on the radio or television 成为重要新闻

a black market n. [usually singular] an illegal form of trade in which foreign money, or goods that are difficult to obtain, are bought and sold 黑市(交易)to buy or sell goods on the black market 从事黑市买卖

arrival n.[U](新技术、新思想的)引进,采用,推行

insulin [‘insjulin] n.[U] 胰岛素

counterpart ['kauntə,pɑ:t] n.[C]职位(或作用)相当的人;对应的事物 =opposite number The Foreign Minister held talks with his Chinese counterpart. 外交部长与中国外交部长举行了会谈。

pacemaker ['peis,meikə] n.心脏起搏器; 心律调整器

pacemaker的其他含义:领跑人;领跑动物 The big banks have been the pacesetters in developing the system. 大银行历来是发展这一体系的先驱。 =pacesetter(美)

(竞赛中的)领先者,领先队伍 The local club are now only six point off the pacemakers. 当地俱乐部与领先者只差一分。 =pacesetter(美)

It is tempting to believe that the security problem can be solved with yet more technical wizardry and a call for heightened vigilance. And it is certainly true that many firms still fail to take security seriously enough. That requires a kind of cultivated paranoia which does not come naturally to non-tech firms. Companies of all stripes should embrace initiatives like “bug bounty” programmes, whereby firms reward ethical hackers for discovering flaws so that they can be fixed before they are taken advantage of.

人们很容易认为,只要有了更多的技术魔法并呼吁大家提高警惕,安全问题就能得到解决。而且很多公司对待安全问题的态度确实还不够认真。这种意识需要一种长期养成的偏执,而科技界以外的公司不会自然而然地拥有这一特质。各种各样的公司都应该采纳像“漏洞悬赏”项目这样的举措——公司奖励发现缺陷的正派黑客,这样在被人利用之前就可以把漏洞修补好。

tempting adj. used for describing something that makes you feel you would like to have it or to do it 诱人的;吸引人的  It was an tempting offer.这是个诱人的提议。

yet another/more | yet again (强调次数或数量的增加)snow, snow, and yet more snow 雪啊雪,没完没了的雪

wizardry [‘wizədri] n.[U] a very impressive and clever achievement; great skill 杰出的成就;非凡的才能 electronic wizardry 电子方面的非凡才能

stripe [straɪp]  n. (especially NAmE) a type, category or opinion 种类;类型;观点 politicians of every stripe 形形色色的政界人士

whereby adv.by which; because of which 凭此;藉以;由于 They have introduced a new system whereby all employees must undergo regular training. 他们采用了新的制度,所有的雇员都必须接受正规的培训。

take full advantage of sth.“充分利用”的替换表达有:

put sth to good use 有效使用/利用 She’ll be able to put her languages to good use in her new job.她在新工作中应该可以好好运动她会的各种语言。

make use of sth/sb 使用;利用(以谋私利)

make the most of sth/sb/oneself 充分利用;尽情享受 It’s my first trip abroad so I’m going to make the most of it.这是我第一次出国,我要充分利用这个机会。

optimise v.充分利用;使优化 optimize the use or resources 充分利用资源

But there is no way to make computers completely safe. Software is hugely complex. Across its products, Google must manage around 2bn lines of source code—errors are inevitable. The average program has 14 separate vulnerabilities, each of them a potential point of illicit entry. Such weaknesses are compounded by the history of the internet, in which security was an afterthought.

但是不可能让计算机百分之百地安全。软件极其复杂。谷歌在各种产品中必须处理约20亿行源代码,出错在所难免。一个普通程序一般有14个不同的安全隐患,每一处都是一个可能的非法入侵点。这些弱点因互联网的历史而雪上加霜:对互联网而言,安全是事后才想到的事情。

illicit [i’lisit] adj.1.非法的;违法的=illegal 2.违背社会常规的;不正当的 an illicit love affair

compound v.使加重;使恶化

afterthought ['ɑ:ftəθɔ:t] 事后的思考(或想法),回想,反省

Leaving the windows open 敞开窗口

This is not a counsel of despair. The risk from fraud, car accidents and the weather can never be eliminated completely ei- ther. But societies have developed ways of managing such risk—from government regulation to the use of legal liability and insurance to create incentives for safer behaviour.

这并不表示已经无计可施。遭遇欺诈、车祸、坏天气的风险同样无法完全避免。不过社会各界已经研究出管理这类风险的种种方法,从政府监管到使用法定责任和保险,来鼓励更安全的行为。

a counsel of despair  (formal) advice not to try to do sth because it is too difficult 知难而退的建议

incentive n.[C,U]~(for/to sb/sth)(to do sth)激励;刺激;鼓励

incentive的常见搭配句型有:

sth provide an incentive for sb to do sth

have a strong incentive to do sth 有强烈的动力做某事

have scant incentive to do sth  缺乏动力做某事

Start with regulation. Governments’ first priority is to refrain from making the situation worse. Terrorist attacks, like the recent ones in St Petersburg and London, often spark calls for encryption to be weakened so that the security services can better monitor what individuals are up to. But it is impos- sible to weaken encryption for terrorists alone. The same protection that guards messaging programs like WhatsApp also guards bank transactions and online identities. Computer security is best served by encryption that is strong for everyone.

先要从监管开始。各国政府的首要任务是克制会让事态恶化的举动。恐怖袭击(例如最近在圣彼得堡和伦敦发生的那些)常常会引发削弱加密的呼声,因为这样一来安保部门就能更好地监控个人在做什么。但削弱加密不可能只针对恐怖分子。保护WhatsApp等短信程序安全的措施也在用于保护银行交易和网上身份信息。对每一个人都做好加密,计算机安全才能得到最好的保护。

The next priority is setting basic product regulations. A lack of expertise will always hamper the ability of users of computers to protect themselves. So governments should promote “public health” for computing. They could insist that internet-connected gizmos be updated with fixes when flaws are found. They could force users to change default usernames and passwords. Reporting laws, already in force in some American states, can oblige companies to disclose when they or their products are hacked. That encourages them to fix a problem instead of burying it.

第二要务是设立基本的产品法规。缺乏专业知识常常会阻碍计算机用户保护自己,因此政府应当推进计算的“公共健康”。它们可以要求联网装置发现漏洞时必须修补更新,还可以强迫用户修改默认的用户名和密码。已在美国部分州实施的报告法要求公司披露它们或它们的产品被黑客攻击的情况。这鼓励它们解决问题而不是隐匿不报。

hamper [ˈhæmpə(r)] If someone or something hampers you, they make it difficult for you to do what you are trying to do. 妨碍;阻碍;牵制;束缚 The bad weather hampered rescue operations. 恶劣的天气阻碍了救援工作的进行。

gizmo [‘ɡizməu] n.[plural gizmos,gismos]小玩意儿;小装置

长难句拆解: They could insist that internet-connected gizmos be updated with fixes when flaws are found.

虚拟语气用于decide, decree, demand, insist, move, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, vote之后的that从句,从句中用should+动词原形或者只用动词原形。

The expert proposed that TV should be turned off at least one hour every day.专家提议每天至少应该关掉电视一个小时。

The board recommended that the company should invest in the new property. 董事会建议公司投资新的房地产。

in force (of a law, rule, etc. 法律、规则等) being used 已生效;在实施中 The new regulations are now in force. 新规章现已生效。

Go a bit slower and fix things   慢一点,解决问题

But setting minimum standards still gets you only so far. Users’ failure to protect themselves is just one instance of the general problem with computer security—that the incentives to take it seriously are too weak. Often, the harm from hackers is not to the owner of a compromised device. Think of botnets, networks of computers, from desktops to routers to “smart” light bulbs, that are infected with malware and attack other targets.

但制定最低标准的作用也就仅此而已。计算机安全的普遍问题是人们实在缺乏动力来认真对待这一问题,用户无法自我保护只是其中一个例子。因黑客入侵遭受损害的往往不是被黑设备的所有者——想想那些感染了恶意软件后攻击其他目标的僵尸网络(由桌面电脑、路由器和“智能”灯泡等设备组成的计算机网络)。

botnet n. a group of computers that are controlled by malware (= software such as a virus that the users do not know about or want) (计算机)僵尸网络(指受恶意软件控制的计算机群)

infect [in’fekt] v to make a computer virus spread to another computer or program 传染,使感染(计算机病毒)

malware  [ˈmælweə(r)] n. [U]恶意软件(指电脑病毒等)(该词由 malicious 与 software 结合而成。)

Most important, the software industry has for decades disclaimed liability for the harm when its products go wrong. Such an approach has its benefits. Silicon Valley’s fruitful “go fast and break things” style of innovation is possible only if firms have relatively free rein to put out new products while they still need perfecting. But this point will soon be moot. As computers spread to products covered by established liability arrangements, such as cars or domestic goods, the industry’s disclaimers will increasingly butt up against existing laws.

更重要的是,软件业几十年来都拒绝为产品问题造成的损害承担责任。这种做法确有好处。只有公司能相对自由地推出有待完善的新产品,硅谷“快速推进、破除陈规”的创新方式才能结出累累硕果。但是这一点很快将失去意义。随着计算机扩展到已建立了责任制度的产品,如汽车或家用产品,这一行业的免责声明会越来越违背已有法律。

disclaim [dis’kleim] v. to state publicly that you have no knowledge of sth, or that you are not responsible for sth 否认;拒绝承认=deny She disclaimed any knowledge of her husband’s whereabouts. 她否认知道丈夫的下落。

rein n.1.缰绳 2. reins(幼儿佩戴以防走失的)保护带 3.the reins 控制;主宰;掌管   It was time to hand over the reins of power. 是该让权的时候了。

put out to produce sth, especially for sale 生产;制造 The factory puts out 500 new cars a week. 这家工厂每周生产 500 辆新汽车。

moot [mu:t] adj.unlikely to happen and therefore not worth considering (因不大可能发生而)无考虑意义的 He argued that the issue had become moot since the board had changed its policy. 他争辩说这项议题已变得毫无实际意义,因为董事会已经改变了政策。

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