Computers will never be secure. To manage the risks, look to economics rather than technology
COMPUTER security is a contradiction in terms. Consider the past year alone: cyberthieves stole $81m from the central bank of Bangladesh; the $4.8bn takeover of Yahoo, an internet firm, by Verizon, a telecoms firm, was nearly derailed by two enormous data breaches; and Russian hackers interfered in the American presidential election.
a contradiction in terms a statement containing two words that contradict each other’s meaning 自相矛盾的说法 A ‘nomad settlement’ is a contradiction in terms. “游牧者的定居”是用词上的自相矛盾。
launch/make/accept/defeat a takeover bid 发起/进行/接受/阻止收购投标
telecoms n.[plural]电信；电讯 telecoms company/technology/industry 电信公司/技术/业
derail [di’reil] v. To derail something such as a plan or a series of negotiations means to prevent it from continuing as planned.阻挠；使离开正常进程 The present wave of political killings is the work of people trying to derail peace talks. 当前的这一系列政治谋杀乃是那些想阻挠和平谈判的人所为。
breach [bri:tʃ] n.[C,U] 违反，破坏（条约、法律或承诺）a breach of contract/copyright/warranty 违约；侵犯版权；违反保证 data breach 数据泄露
Away from the headlines, a black market in computerised extortion, hacking-for-hire and stolen digital goods is booming. The problem is about to get worse. Computers increasingly deal not just with abstract data like credit-card details and databases, but also with the real world of physical objects and vulnerable human bodies. A modern car is a computer on wheels; an aeroplane is a computer with wings. The arrival of the “Internet of Things”will see computers baked into everything from road signs and MRI scanners to prosthetics and insulin pumps. There is little evidence that these gadgets will be any more trustworthy than their desktop counterparts. Hackers have already proved that they can take remote control of connected cars and pacemakers.
headline [‘hedlain] [C] （报纸的）大字标题 The scandal was in the headlines for several days. 这一丑闻连续几天都刊登在头版头条。
常见动词搭配grab / hit / make the headlines to be an important item of news in newspapers or on the radio or television 成为重要新闻
a black market n. [usually singular] an illegal form of trade in which foreign money, or goods that are difficult to obtain, are bought and sold 黑市（交易）to buy or sell goods on the black market 从事黑市买卖
insulin [‘insjulin] n.[U] 胰岛素
counterpart ['kauntə,pɑ:t] n.[C]职位（或作用）相当的人；对应的事物 =opposite number The Foreign Minister held talks with his Chinese counterpart. 外交部长与中国外交部长举行了会谈。
pacemaker ['peis,meikə] n.心脏起搏器； 心律调整器
pacemaker的其他含义：领跑人；领跑动物 The big banks have been the pacesetters in developing the system. 大银行历来是发展这一体系的先驱。 =pacesetter（美）
（竞赛中的）领先者，领先队伍 The local club are now only six point off the pacemakers. 当地俱乐部与领先者只差一分。 =pacesetter（美）
It is tempting to believe that the security problem can be solved with yet more technical wizardry and a call for heightened vigilance. And it is certainly true that many firms still fail to take security seriously enough. That requires a kind of cultivated paranoia which does not come naturally to non-tech firms. Companies of all stripes should embrace initiatives like “bug bounty” programmes, whereby firms reward ethical hackers for discovering flaws so that they can be fixed before they are taken advantage of.
tempting adj. used for describing something that makes you feel you would like to have it or to do it 诱人的；吸引人的 It was an tempting offer.这是个诱人的提议。
yet another/more | yet again （强调次数或数量的增加）snow, snow, and yet more snow 雪啊雪，没完没了的雪
wizardry [‘wizədri] n.[U] a very impressive and clever achievement; great skill 杰出的成就；非凡的才能 electronic wizardry 电子方面的非凡才能
stripe [straɪp] n. (especially NAmE) a type, category or opinion 种类；类型；观点 politicians of every stripe 形形色色的政界人士
whereby adv.by which; because of which 凭此；藉以；由于 They have introduced a new system whereby all employees must undergo regular training. 他们采用了新的制度，所有的雇员都必须接受正规的培训。
take full advantage of sth.“充分利用”的替换表达有：
put sth to good use 有效使用/利用 She’ll be able to put her languages to good use in her new job.她在新工作中应该可以好好运动她会的各种语言。
make use of sth/sb 使用；利用（以谋私利）
make the most of sth/sb/oneself 充分利用；尽情享受 It’s my first trip abroad so I’m going to make the most of it.这是我第一次出国，我要充分利用这个机会。
optimise v.充分利用；使优化 optimize the use or resources 充分利用资源
But there is no way to make computers completely safe. Software is hugely complex. Across its products, Google must manage around 2bn lines of source code—errors are inevitable. The average program has 14 separate vulnerabilities, each of them a potential point of illicit entry. Such weaknesses are compounded by the history of the internet, in which security was an afterthought.
illicit [i’lisit] adj.1.非法的；违法的=illegal 2.违背社会常规的；不正当的 an illicit love affair
afterthought ['ɑ:ftəθɔ:t] 事后的思考(或想法)，回想，反省
Leaving the windows open 敞开窗口
This is not a counsel of despair. The risk from fraud, car accidents and the weather can never be eliminated completely ei- ther. But societies have developed ways of managing such risk—from government regulation to the use of legal liability and insurance to create incentives for safer behaviour.
a counsel of despair (formal) advice not to try to do sth because it is too difficult 知难而退的建议
incentive n.[C,U]~(for/to sb/sth)(to do sth)激励；刺激；鼓励
sth provide an incentive for sb to do sth
have a strong incentive to do sth 有强烈的动力做某事
have scant incentive to do sth 缺乏动力做某事
Start with regulation. Governments’ first priority is to refrain from making the situation worse. Terrorist attacks, like the recent ones in St Petersburg and London, often spark calls for encryption to be weakened so that the security services can better monitor what individuals are up to. But it is impos- sible to weaken encryption for terrorists alone. The same protection that guards messaging programs like WhatsApp also guards bank transactions and online identities. Computer security is best served by encryption that is strong for everyone.
The next priority is setting basic product regulations. A lack of expertise will always hamper the ability of users of computers to protect themselves. So governments should promote “public health” for computing. They could insist that internet-connected gizmos be updated with fixes when flaws are found. They could force users to change default usernames and passwords. Reporting laws, already in force in some American states, can oblige companies to disclose when they or their products are hacked. That encourages them to fix a problem instead of burying it.
hamper [ˈhæmpə(r)] If someone or something hampers you, they make it difficult for you to do what you are trying to do. 妨碍；阻碍；牵制；束缚 The bad weather hampered rescue operations. 恶劣的天气阻碍了救援工作的进行。
gizmo [‘ɡizməu] n.[plural gizmos,gismos]小玩意儿；小装置
长难句拆解： They could insist that internet-connected gizmos be updated with fixes when flaws are found.
虚拟语气用于decide, decree, demand, insist, move, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, vote之后的that从句，从句中用should+动词原形或者只用动词原形。
The expert proposed that TV should be turned off at least one hour every day.专家提议每天至少应该关掉电视一个小时。
The board recommended that the company should invest in the new property. 董事会建议公司投资新的房地产。
in force (of a law, rule, etc. 法律、规则等) being used 已生效；在实施中 The new regulations are now in force. 新规章现已生效。
Go a bit slower and fix things 慢一点，解决问题
But setting minimum standards still gets you only so far. Users’ failure to protect themselves is just one instance of the general problem with computer security—that the incentives to take it seriously are too weak. Often, the harm from hackers is not to the owner of a compromised device. Think of botnets, networks of computers, from desktops to routers to “smart” light bulbs, that are infected with malware and attack other targets.
botnet n. a group of computers that are controlled by malware (= software such as a virus that the users do not know about or want) （计算机）僵尸网络（指受恶意软件控制的计算机群）
infect [in’fekt] v to make a computer virus spread to another computer or program 传染，使感染（计算机病毒）
malware [ˈmælweə(r)] n. [U]恶意软件（指电脑病毒等）（该词由 malicious 与 software 结合而成。）
Most important, the software industry has for decades disclaimed liability for the harm when its products go wrong. Such an approach has its benefits. Silicon Valley’s fruitful “go fast and break things” style of innovation is possible only if firms have relatively free rein to put out new products while they still need perfecting. But this point will soon be moot. As computers spread to products covered by established liability arrangements, such as cars or domestic goods, the industry’s disclaimers will increasingly butt up against existing laws.
disclaim [dis’kleim] v. to state publicly that you have no knowledge of sth, or that you are not responsible for sth 否认；拒绝承认=deny She disclaimed any knowledge of her husband’s whereabouts. 她否认知道丈夫的下落。
rein n.1.缰绳 2. reins（幼儿佩戴以防走失的）保护带 3.the reins 控制；主宰；掌管 It was time to hand over the reins of power. 是该让权的时候了。
put out to produce sth, especially for sale 生产；制造 The factory puts out 500 new cars a week. 这家工厂每周生产 500 辆新汽车。
moot [mu:t] adj.unlikely to happen and therefore not worth considering （因不大可能发生而）无考虑意义的 He argued that the issue had become moot since the board had changed its policy. 他争辩说这项议题已变得毫无实际意义，因为董事会已经改变了政策。