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一文读懂redis的zset的数据结构

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zset的数据结构

在redis中有一个有序列表,它的底层是由压缩列表或跳表组成。我们看下对应的数据结构

压缩链表:

drg0032

跳表:

drg00032

下载下来4.0的源码 https://download.redis.io/releases/redis-4.0.0.tar.gz

对应的源码:
src/server.h
# 最大层级
#define ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL 32 /* Should be enough for 2^32 elements */
# 表示上一层级是下一层级的1/4,相当于是一棵四叉树
#define ZSKIPLIST_P 0.25      /* Skiplist P = 1/4 */

typedef struct zset {
    dict *dict;
    zskiplist *zsl;
} zset;
typedef struct zskiplist {
    // 头节点,尾节点
    struct zskiplistNode *header, *tail;
    //长度
    unsigned long length;
    //当前索引的层数
    int level;
} zskiplist;

typedef struct zskiplistNode {
    // 动态字符串,member 对象
    sds ele;
    // 分值表示顺序
    double score;
    // 后退指针
    struct zskiplistNode *backward;
    //索引层
    struct zskiplistLevel {
        // 前进指针指向node
        struct zskiplistNode *forward;
        // 这个层跨越的节点数量
        unsigned int span;
    } level[];
} zskiplistNode;

#src/t_zset源码

int zslRandomLevel(void) {
    int level = 1;
    while ((random()&0xFFFF) < (ZSKIPLIST_P * 0xFFFF))
        level += 1;
    return (level<ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL) ? level : ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL;
}

我们看下zadd的源码:
/* This generic command implements both ZADD and ZINCRBY. */
void zaddGenericCommand(client *c, int flags) {
    static char *nanerr = "resulting score is not a number (NaN)";
    robj *key = c->argv[1];
    robj *zobj;
    sds ele;
    double score = 0, *scores = NULL;
    int j, elements;
    int scoreidx = 0;
    /* The following vars are used in order to track what the command actually
     * did during the execution, to reply to the client and to trigger the
     * notification of keyspace change. */
    int added = 0;      /* Number of new elements added. */
    int updated = 0;    /* Number of elements with updated score. */
    int processed = 0;  /* Number of elements processed, may remain zero with
                           options like XX. */

    /* Parse options. At the end 'scoreidx' is set to the argument position
     * of the score of the first score-element pair. */
    # 解析参数
    scoreidx = 2;
    while(scoreidx < c->argc) {
        char *opt = c->argv[scoreidx]->ptr;
        if (!strcasecmp(opt,"nx")) flags |= ZADD_NX;
        else if (!strcasecmp(opt,"xx")) flags |= ZADD_XX;
        else if (!strcasecmp(opt,"ch")) flags |= ZADD_CH;
        else if (!strcasecmp(opt,"incr")) flags |= ZADD_INCR;
        else break;
        scoreidx++;
    }
    #参数转换
    /* Turn options into simple to check vars. */
    int incr = (flags & ZADD_INCR) != 0;
    int nx = (flags & ZADD_NX) != 0;
    int xx = (flags & ZADD_XX) != 0;
    int ch = (flags & ZADD_CH) != 0;

    /* After the options, we expect to have an even number of args, since
     * we expect any number of score-element pairs. */
     # 参数必须成对
    elements = c->argc-scoreidx;
    if (elements % 2 || !elements) {
        addReply(c,shared.syntaxerr);
        return;
    }
    elements /= 2; /* Now this holds the number of score-element pairs. */

    /* Check for incompatible options. */
    if (nx && xx) {
        addReplyError(c,
            "XX and NX options at the same time are not compatible");
        return;
    }

    if (incr && elements > 1) {
        addReplyError(c,
            "INCR option supports a single increment-element pair");
        return;
    }

    /* Start parsing all the scores, we need to emit any syntax error
     * before executing additions to the sorted set, as the command should
     * either execute fully or nothing at all. */
    # 遍历所有要添加的元素,score必须是数字
    scores = zmalloc(sizeof(double)*elements);
    for (j = 0; j < elements; j++) {
        if (getDoubleFromObjectOrReply(c,c->argv[scoreidx+j*2],&scores[j],NULL)
            != C_OK) goto cleanup;
    }

    /* Lookup the key and create the sorted set if does not exist. */
    # zset不存在就加锁创建
    zobj = lookupKeyWrite(c->db,key);
    if (zobj == NULL) {
        if (xx) goto reply_to_client; /* No key + XX option: nothing to do. */
        #选择存储结构
        if (server.zset_max_ziplist_entries == 0 ||
            server.zset_max_ziplist_value < sdslen(c->argv[scoreidx+1]->ptr))
        {
            # 跳表
            zobj = createZsetObject();
        } else {
            # 压缩列表
            zobj = createZsetZiplistObject();
        }
        # 将创建好的数据结构添加到db中
        dbAdd(c->db,key,zobj);
    } else {
        if (zobj->type != OBJ_ZSET) {
            addReply(c,shared.wrongtypeerr);
            goto cleanup;
        }
    }

    for (j = 0; j < elements; j++) {
        double newscore;
        score = scores[j];
        int retflags = flags;
        # 从参数中获取元素member
        # ZADD key score member [[score member] [score member] ...]
        ele = c->argv[scoreidx+1+j*2]->ptr;
        # 添加逻辑具体看zsetAdd
        int retval = zsetAdd(zobj, score, ele, &retflags, &newscore);
        # 添加失败就清空
        if (retval == 0) {
            addReplyError(c,nanerr);
            goto cleanup;
        }
        if (retflags & ZADD_ADDED) added++;
        if (retflags & ZADD_UPDATED) updated++;
        if (!(retflags & ZADD_NOP)) processed++;
        score = newscore;
    }
    server.dirty += (added+updated);

reply_to_client:
    if (incr) { /* ZINCRBY or INCR option. */
        if (processed)
            addReplyDouble(c,score);
        else
            addReply(c,shared.nullbulk);
    } else { /* ZADD. */
        addReplyLongLong(c,ch ? added+updated : added);
    }

cleanup:
    zfree(scores);
    if (added || updated) {
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,key);
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(NOTIFY_ZSET,
            incr ? "zincr" : "zadd", key, c->db->id);
    }
}

void zaddCommand(client *c) {
    zaddGenericCommand(c,ZADD_NONE);
}

void zincrbyCommand(client *c) {
    zaddGenericCommand(c,ZADD_INCR);
}

int zsetAdd(robj *zobj, double score, sds ele, int *flags, double *newscore) {

    if (zobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_ZIPLIST) {

        if ((eptr = zzlFind(zobj->ptr,ele,&curscore)) != NULL) {
           # 存在的时候,删除并替换
            if (score != curscore) {
                zobj->ptr = zzlDelete(zobj->ptr,eptr);
                zobj->ptr = zzlInsert(zobj->ptr,ele,score);
                *flags |= ZADD_UPDATED;
            }
            return 1;
        } else if (!xx) {
            /* Optimize: check if the element is too large or the list
             * becomes too long *before* executing zzlInsert. */
            zobj->ptr = zzlInsert(zobj->ptr,ele,score);
            #在满足zset_max_ziplist_entries 和zset_max_ziplist_value的时候,转化成跳表
            if (zzlLength(zobj->ptr) > server.zset_max_ziplist_entries)
                zsetConvert(zobj,OBJ_ENCODING_SKIPLIST);
            if (sdslen(ele) > server.zset_max_ziplist_value)
                zsetConvert(zobj,OBJ_ENCODING_SKIPLIST);
            if (newscore) *newscore = score;
            *flags |= ZADD_ADDED;
            return 1;
        } else {
            *flags |= ZADD_NOP;
            return 1;
        }
    } else if (zobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_SKIPLIST) {
        zset *zs = zobj->ptr;
        zskiplistNode *znode;
        dictEntry *de;
        # 存在的时候,删除并替换
        de = dictFind(zs->dict,ele);
        if (de != NULL) {
            if (score != curscore) {
                zskiplistNode *node;
                serverAssert(zslDelete(zs->zsl,curscore,ele,&node));
                znode = zslInsert(zs->zsl,score,node->ele);
                node->ele = NULL;
                zslFreeNode(node);
                /* Note that we did not removed the original element from
                 * the hash table representing the sorted set, so we just
                 * update the score. */
                dictGetVal(de) = &znode->score; /* Update score ptr. */
                *flags |= ZADD_UPDATED;
            }
            return 1;
        } else if (!xx) {
            # 将元素转为sds
            ele = sdsdup(ele);
            znode = zslInsert(zs->zsl,score,ele);
            serverAssert(dictAdd(zs->dict,ele,&znode->score) == DICT_OK);
            *flags |= ZADD_ADDED;
            if (newscore) *newscore = score;
            return 1;
        } else {
            *flags |= ZADD_NOP;
            return 1;
        }
    } else {
        serverPanic("Unknown sorted set encoding");
    }
    return 0; /* Never reached. */
}

在redis的官方文档中 https://raw.githubusercontent.com/redis/redis/4.0/redis.conf 有个配置参数:

# Similarly to hashes and lists, sorted sets are also specially encoded in
# order to save a lot of space. This encoding is only used when the length and
# elements of a sorted set are below the following limits:
zset-max-ziplist-entries 128
zset-max-ziplist-value 64

简单的梳理下流程:

drg000032

  • 最开始数据量少,选择的压缩列表的数据结构
  • 当所保存的元素超过了zset-max-ziplist-entries对应的值(默认128)转换为跳表;
  • 当添加元素的member的长度大于zset-max-ziplist-value对应的值(默认64)转换为跳表

通过以上资料,我们可以推断下:

  • 在小数据量的时候,压缩列表的性能不会比跳表差太多;
  • 通过数据结构的对比,压缩列表在有序性上的性能损耗相对较大,插入数据需要将数据后移;
  • 跳表对数据的插入相对比较友好,直接修改指针就行;
  • 跳表需要注意多级索引的退化,需要在合适的时机修改或重构索引;

zset的应用场景

滑动窗口限流

如:生产上要对外部调用系统进行限流,每分钟只能有1000的调用量

drg0000032

使用命令:

  • zadd 接口名 时间戳 x
  • zcount 接口名 时间戳-1分钟 时间戳 需要定时清理数据

延迟队列

drg31

使用命令:

  • zadd key 时间戳 x
  • ZREMRANGEBYSCORE key 时间戳 时间戳+100毫秒 (需要注意一致性)

排行榜

  • zadd ranking_list 1 a 初始化
  • ZINCRBY ranking_list 1 a 浏览量+1
  • ZREVRANGE ranking_list 0 9 按score从大到小取10条

 

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