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Linux教程之网络管理命令Netstat的使用

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Netstat(network statistics) 网络统计命令是一个命令行工具,用于监视网络出入的连接,路由表以接口统计等。Netstat 在所有的Unix或者Linux系统,Windows系统都是适用的,它是非常有用的对于排查网络故障以及网络性能。Netstat 是许多网络服务调试工具之一,能够检查到系统的哪个端口是打开的并且哪个程序在监听端口。

这个命令是非常有用的对于Linux网络管理员以及系统管理员监视网络相关的问题以及决定网络流量的性能,这篇文章主要展示Netstat命令在日常操作常用的一些例子。

1,显示所有Tcp和Udp连接的监听端口

列出所有Tcp和Udp的端口使用Netstat -a 操作。

# netstat -a | more

Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 52 192.168.0.2:ssh 192.168.0.1:egs ESTABLISHED
tcp 1 0 192.168.0.2:59292 www.gov.com:http CLOSE_WAIT
tcp 0 0 localhost:smtp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:59482 *:* LISTEN
udp 0 0 *:35036 *:*
udp 0 0 *:npmp-local *:*

Active UNIX domain sockets (servers and established)
Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node Path
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 16972 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-76b-0-6fa08790553d6
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 17149 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-794-0-7058d584166d2
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 17161 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-792-0-546fe905321cc
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 15938 /tmp/orbit
-root/linc-74b-0-415135cb6aeab

2,显示Tcp端口连接

列出只是Tcp端口的连接使用netstat -at命令。

# netstat -at

Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost:ipp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost:smtp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 52 192.168.0.2:ssh 192.168.0.1:egs ESTABLISHED
tcp 1 0 192.168.0.2:59292 www.gov.com:http CLOSE_WAIT

3,显示Udp端口连接

列出只是Udp端口的连接使用netstat -au命令。

# netstat -au

Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
udp 0 0 *:35036 *:*
udp 0 0 *:npmp-local *:*
udp 0 0 *:mdns *:*

4,显示所有监听连接

显示所有监听连接使用netstat -l命令。

# netstat -l

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:58642 *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN
udp 0 0 *:35036 *:*
udp 0 0 *:npmp-local *:*

Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node Path
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 16972 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-76b-0-6fa08790553d6
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 17149 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-794-0-7058d584166d2
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 17161 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-792-0-546fe905321cc
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 15938 /tmp/orbit-root/linc-74b-0-415135cb6aeab

5,显示所有Tcp监听端口

显示所有活动的Tcp监听端口使用netstat -lt。


# netstat -lt

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 *:dctp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:mysql *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:munin *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:ftp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:ipp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:smtp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:http *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:https *:* LISTEN

6,显示所有Udp监听端口

显示所有活动的Udp监听端口使用netstat -lu。

# netstat -lu

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
udp 0 0 *:39578 *:*
udp 0 0 *:meregister *:*
udp 0 0 *:vpps-qua *:*
udp 0 0 *:openvpn *:*
udp 0 0 *:mdns *:*
udp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:*
udp 0 0 *:ipp *:*
udp 0 0 *:60222 *:*
udp 0 0 *:mdns *:*

7,显示所有UNIX监听端口

显示所有Unix监听的端口使用netstat -lx命令。

# netstat -lx

Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node Path
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 4171 @ISCSIADM_ABSTRACT_NAMESPACE
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 5767 /var/run/cups/cups.sock
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 7082 @/tmp/fam-root-
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 6157 /dev/gpmctl
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 6215 @/var/run/hald/dbus-IcefTIUkHm
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 6038 /tmp/.font-unix/fs7100
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 6175 /var/run/avahi-daemon/socket
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 4157 @ISCSID_UIP_ABSTRACT_NAMESPACE
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 60835836 /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 4645 /var/run/audispd_events
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 5136 /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 6216 @/var/run/hald/dbus-wsUBI30V2I
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 5517 /var/run/acpid.socket
unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 5531 /var/run/pcscd.comm

8,显示协议的统计信息

显示协议的统计信息,默认情况下,显示Tcp,Udp,ICMP和IP协议的统计信息,使用-s参数显示统计信息。


# netstat -s

Ip:
2461 total packets received
0 forwarded
0 incoming packets discarded
2431 incoming packets delivered
2049 requests sent out
Icmp:
0 ICMP messages received
0 input ICMP message failed.
ICMP input histogram:
1 ICMP messages sent
0 ICMP messages failed
ICMP output histogram:
destination unreachable: 1
Tcp:
159 active connections openings
1 passive connection openings
4 failed connection attempts
0 connection resets received
1 connections established
2191 segments received
1745 segments send out
24 segments retransmited
0 bad segments received.
4 resets sent
Udp:
243 packets received
1 packets to unknown port received.
0 packet receive errors
281 packets sent

9,显示TCP协议的统计信息

显示TCP协议的统计信息使用netstat -st命令。

# netstat -st

Tcp:
2805201 active connections openings
1597466 passive connection openings
1522484 failed connection attempts
37806 connection resets received
1 connections established
57718706 segments received
64280042 segments send out
3135688 segments retransmited
74 bad segments received.
17580 resets sent

10,显示Udp协议的统计信息。

显示Udp协议的统计信息使用netstat -su命令。

# netstat -su

Udp:
1774823 packets received
901848 packets to unknown port received.
0 packet receive errors
2968722 packets sent

11,显示对应的进程ID和服务名

显示服务名和它们的进程号,使用netstat -tp显示进程ID/程序名。

# netstat -tp

Active Internet connections (w/o servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name
tcp 0 0 192.168.0.2:ssh 192.168.0.1:egs ESTABLISHED 2179/sshd
tcp 1 0 192.168.0.2:59292 www.gov.com:http CLOSE_WAIT 1939/clock-applet

12,显示网络混杂模式

显示混淆模式通过-ac ,设置5秒的刷新打印,默认是每秒打印一次。

# netstat -ac 5 | grep tcp

tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:58642 *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost:ipp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost:smtp *:* LISTEN
tcp 1 0 192.168.0.2:59447 www.gov.com:http CLOSE_WAIT
tcp 0 52 192.168.0.2:ssh 192.168.0.1:egs ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost:ipp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 localhost:smtp *:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 *:59482 *:* LISTEN

13,显示路由信息

显示路由表通过netstat -r命令。

# netstat -r

Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface
192.168.0.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
link-local * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
default 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

14,显示网络接口包处理

显示网络网络接口包处理(包括传输和接收的包)。

# netstat -i

Kernel Interface table
Iface MTU Met RX-OK RX-ERR RX-DRP RX-OVR TX-OK TX-ERR TX-DRP TX-OVR Flg
eth0 1500 0 4459 0 0 0 4057 0 0 0 BMRU
lo 16436 0 8 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 LRU

15,显示所有接口

显示所有接口使用netstat -ie ,类似于ifconfig。

# netstat -ie

Kernel Interface table
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:B4:DA:21
inet addr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:feb4:da21/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:4486 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4077 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:2720253 (2.5 MiB) TX bytes:1161745 (1.1 MiB)
Interrupt:18 Base address:0x2000

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:480 (480.0 b) TX bytes:480 (480.0 b)

16,显示IPV4和IPV6信息

显示ipv4和ipv6信息使用netstat -g命令。

# netstat -g

IPv6/IPv4 Group Memberships
Interface RefCnt Group
--------------- ------ ---------------------
lo 1 all-systems.mcast.net
eth0 1 224.0.0.251
eth0 1 all-systems.mcast.net
lo 1 ff02::1
eth0 1 ff02::202
eth0 1 ff02::1:ffb4:da21
eth0 1 ff02::1

17,打印Nestat信息

使用以下命令将每隔几秒打印Netstat 信息。


# netstat -c

Active Internet connections (w/o servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg007.shr.prod.s:36944 TIME_WAIT
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg010.shr.prod.s:42110 TIME_WAIT
tcp 0 132 tecmint.com:ssh 115.113.134.3.static-:64662 ESTABLISHED
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http crawl-66-249-71-240.g:41166 TIME_WAIT
tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:54823 localhost.localdomain:smtp TIME_WAIT
tcp 0 0 localhost.localdomain:54822 localhost.localdomain:smtp TIME_WAIT
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg010.shr.prod.s:42091 TIME_WAIT
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg007.shr.prod.s:36998 TIME_WAIT

18,发现不支持的地址

发现没有配置的地址族信息。

# netstat --verbose

netstat: no support for `AF IPX' on this system.
netstat: no support for `AF AX25' on this system.
netstat: no support for `AF X25' on this system.
netstat: no support for `AF NETROM' on this system.

19,查找有多少个程序

查找有多少个程序监听一个端口。


# netstat -ap | grep http

tcp 0 0 *:http *:* LISTEN 9056/httpd
tcp 0 0 *:https *:* LISTEN 9056/httpd
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg008.shr.prod.s:35248 TIME_WAIT -
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg007.shr.prod.s:57783 TIME_WAIT -
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg007.shr.prod.s:57769 TIME_WAIT -
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg008.shr.prod.s:35270 TIME_WAIT -
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg009.shr.prod.s:41637 TIME_WAIT -
tcp 0 0 tecmint.com:http sg2nlhg009.shr.prod.s:41614 TIME_WAIT -
unix 2 [ ] STREAM CONNECTED 88586726 10394/httpd

20,显示原生的网络统计

显示原生的网络统计。


# netstat --statistics --raw

Ip:
62175683 total packets received
52970 with invalid addresses
0 forwarded
Icmp:
875519 ICMP messages received
destination unreachable: 901671
echo request: 8
echo replies: 16253
IcmpMsg:
InType0: 83
IpExt:
InMcastPkts: 117

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